2. Locative marking strategies

2.1 Locative noun class prefix

       The basic marking strategy for locatives is prefixation by means of the locative prefix ha/pa-, ku-, mu-, and i-, traditionally referred to as noun class prefixes 16, 17, 18 and 23 respectively1. The locative prefix is stacked onto the original class prefix of the noun in question.
(1) mu-lu-gutu                  in the (animal) pen [Sukuma F21]
(2) mu-nzira                      in the path [Shona S12]
(2) ku-mu-gunda               in the farm [Hehe G62]
(3) ha-meza                      on the table [Sukuma F21]
(4) he-mu-twi                   on the head [Bondei G24]
(5) pa-shi-tala                   on the bed [Safwa M25]
(6) pa-lu-soko                    in the valley [Nyakyusa M31]
(7) i-bu-raayi                     in Europe [Rundi D62]
(8) ku-Lilongwe                  to Lilongwe [Chewa N31b]

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