Emigration, on the other hand, was, oddly, spawned by the long history of exposure to Western schooling. The area is greatly influenced by the Lutheran Church, being a traditional German missionary sphere of influence with mission headquarters at Nkwarungo. The hallmarks are Machame Hospital and Machame Girls Secondary School. In addition, the population pressure on the small land area forced the people to venture out. This highly mobile population runs businesses in virtually all towns of Tanzania (cf. Atlasi ya Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Besides, predictably, there is heavy Swahili influence on the speakers of Kimashami.

The people, Wamashami, call their language Kimashami (E62a in the Guthrie classification), and their homeland Mashami, which includes the Masama area in the west. So the name “Machame” that appears in many contexts is really a corruption of the native term by outsiders. Being one of the languages spoken by the Chagga people, it shares several lexical and structural features with the immediate neighbours: Kimeru to the west, and Kivunjo and Kiwoso (Kibosho) to the east.

Download A Grammatical Sketch of Kimashami